Academic article reference list

The following references are scholarly/academic articles listed in alphabetical order. The articles on this list have been reviewed by the WesternCrisis.com author(s). These are articles are therefore suggested for further research.


Anderson, L 2011, ‘Demystifying the Arab Spring’, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 90, No. 3, pp. 2-7.

Bottici, C & Challand, B 2006, ‘Rethinking political myth: the clash of civilizations as a self-fulfilling prophecy’, European Journal of Social Theory, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 315-336.

Chiozza, G 2002, 'Is there a clash of civilizations? Evidence from patterns of international conflict involvement', 1946-97. Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 39, pp. 711-734.

Crowder, G, Griffiths, M, & Hasan, M 2014, 'Islam, Islamism, and Post-Islamism: Rediscovering politics after the War on Terror', Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 110-124.

Fox, J 2001, 'Two civilizations and ethnic conflict: Islam and the West', Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 459-472.

Fox, J 2002, 'Ethnic minorities and the clash of civilizations: A quantitative analysis of Huntington's thesis', British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 415-434.

Fukuyama, F 1991, 'Liberal democracy as a global phenomenon', PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 659-664.

Fukuyama, F 1995, 'Reflections on the end of history, five years later', History and Theory, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 27-43.

Gill, S 2002, 'Constitutionalizing inequality and the clash of globalizations', International Studies Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 47-65.

Gray, J 1998, 'Global utopias and clashing civilizations: misunderstanding the present', International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 74, No. 1, pp. 149-163.

Guney, A 2005, 'The future of Turkey in the European Union', Futures, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 303-316.

Henderson, EA & Tucker, R 2001, 'Clear and present strangers: the clash of civilizations and international conflict', International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 317-338.

Hunt, MH 2002, 'In the wake of September 11: the clash of what?', The Journal of American History, Vol. 89, No. 2, pp. 416-425.

Huntington, SP 1993[a], 'The clash of civilizations?' Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, No. 5, pp. 22-49.

Huntington, SP 1993[b], 'If not civilizations, what? Paradigms of the Post-Cold War World', Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, No. 3, pp. 186-194.

Huntington, SP 2000, 'Try again: a reply to russett, Oneal & Cox', Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 37, No. 5, pp. 609-610.

Inglehart, R & Norris, P 2003, ‘The true clash of civilizations’, Foreign Policy, No. 135, pp. 62-70.

Ismail, S 2004, 'Being Muslim: Islam, Islamism and identity politics', Government and Opposition, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 614-631.

Lewis, B 1990, ‘The Roots of Muslim Rage’, Policy, Summer 2001-2002, pp. 17-26.

Marsden, M 2008, 'Women, politics and Islamism in Northern Pakistan', Modern Asian Studies, vol. 42, no. 2-3, pp. 405-429.

Merlyna, L 2011, 'Radical Islamism in Indonesia and its Middle Eastern connections', MERIA Journal, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 1-12.

Mozaffari, M 2005, ‘Bin Laden, Islamism, and terrorism’, Society, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 34-42.

Mozaffari, M 2007, ‘What is Islamism? History and definition of a concept’, Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 17-33.

Mozaffari, M 2009, ‘The rise of Islamism in the light of European totalitarianism’, Totalitarianism and Political Religions, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-13.

Russett, B, O’Neal, J & Cox, M 2000, ‘Clash of civilizations, or realism and liberalism déjà vu? Some evidence’, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 583-608.

Said, EW 2001, ‘The clash of ignorance’, The Nation, 4 October, available at: http://www.thenation.com/article/clash-ignorance.

Tibi, B 2007, 'The totalitarianism of Jihadist Islamism and its challenge to Europe and to Islam', Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 35-54.

Tibi, B 2008, 'The challenge of fundamentalism', in FJ Lechner & J Boli (eds), The Globalization Reader, Third Edition, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Massachusetts: USA, pp. 358-363.

Tibi, B 2009, 'Islamism and democracy On the compatibility of institutional Islamism and the political culture of democracy', Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, vol. 10, vol. 2, pp. 135-164.

Toprak, B 2005, 'Islam and democracy in Turkey', Turkish Studies, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 167-186.

Tugal, C 2002, 'Islamism in Turkey: beyond instrument and meaning', Economy and Society, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 85-111.

Vali, N 2004, 'Military rule, Islamism and democracy in Pakistan', The Middle East Journal, vol. 58 no. 2, pp. 195-209.